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Characteristics of One Party System

(i) Oppositionless: Opposition, whether official or unofficial, is completely disallowed or outlawed. (ii) Non-competitive: Even though elections are held within party, the voters are extremely limited to names submitted to them by the party hierarchy. A no-vote is unaccepted and carries severe penalties. (iii) Dictatorial: Most one party systems are essentially dictatorial. The only party…

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Disadvantages of One Party System

1. The one party system of government does not allow opposition party and this denies the society the advantage of the impacts which opposition parties usually make for effective legislation. 2. The one party system is usually employed as an instrument of oppression and political victimisation of critics of government. 3. One party system is…

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Advantages of Two Party Systems

1. It produces strong government: There is no coalition government or alliance of parties. Thus, it promotes political stability. 2. There is much tolerance since the party in government today can become opposition party tomorrow. 3. Policy decisions by government usually take account of the criticism of the opposition party and are therefore willing to…

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Characteristics of Multi-Party System

1. The parties in the Nigerian experience tend to polarize along ethnic lines. Examples include Northern People Congress (NPC) for the Hausa/Fulani, Action Group (AG) for the Yorubas, National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) for the Igbos. In recent times, National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was dominated by the North, Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN)…

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Advantages of Multi-Party System

1. It offers the widest possible choice of alternative, policies and leaders. The electorates have opportunities to choose between the numerous programmes presented to them at elections. 2. It is highly representative and practically satisfying the democratic requirement or principle of mass political participation. 3. Multi-party government makes for bargaining as the government has to…

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Disadvantages of Multi-Party System

1. Multi-Party is usually unstable and in perpetual flux. 2. It encourages coalition government (two or more parties forming the government) such governments are often weak. 3. The parties in multi-party system represent specific sections of the community, the system entrenches ethnic or sectional consciousness. National consciousness is then slow to develop. 4. Multi-party system…

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Functions of Pressure Groups

The fundamental function of pressure groups is to protect the interest of the groups and thus bring about changes in the direction of government policy. Other functions include the following: 1. Economic functions: Some associations raise funds and give assistance to members in time of needs. 2. Symbolic functions: Pressure groups give the members a…

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Characteristics of Pressure Groups

1. Organisation: To perform its role, pressure groups need to establish formal organisation with hierarchy and rules. Through organisation, the group’s leaders can use both material and human resources influence. 2. Do not nominate candidates to contest elections. 3. Generally seek the interest of their members. 4. Do not normally form a government. 5. They…

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Modes of Operation

Pressure groups adopt the following methods to achieve their demands and objectives in the state: (a) Strikes, work-to-rule and demonstrations. (b) Issuing ultimatum. (c) Propaganda. (d) Lobbying the members of parliament, the executive and the civil servants to influence the policy of government. (e) Organising seminars to enlighten government and the public on their demands.…

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Differences between Pressure Groups and Political Parties

Pressure groups can be distinguished from political parties from the following: (a) Political parties’ main aim is to win political power and exercise it. But pressure groups have to influence government’s decisions in their favour. (b) Political parties have policies and programmes which are contained in the party’ s manifestoes but the pressure groups do…

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Types of Pressure Groups

Pressure groups are classified as follows: (a) Professional Pressure Groups:These are formed by members of the same profession in order to promote the interest of their members and their profession, as for example, the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Nigerian Union of Journalists (NUJ), Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) and many others.…

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The Meaning of Pressure Groups

Pressure group is an organised group of people seeking to influence the policies and decision-making machinery of government in order to promote the interest of their members. It is an organised association of people seeking to influence government policies and decisions socially, politically, economically and morally. The objectives of such private association are to avert…

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Types of Party System

Based on the number of parties, the following types of party system can be identified. One Party SystemThis is one in which there is only one officially or constitutionally recognised political party in the state. No other political party is authorised by law to operate. Any opposition or rival party is seen as treason. This…

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What is Party System?

Oyovbaire, et al. defines party system as the structural and functional linkage or interdependence and interrelations between the party and other social groups and political institutions in the polity. Parties operate within the party system; and the type of system will have great effect on party systems. There are various ways of classifying party systems.…

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Types of Political Parties

To classify types of parties, we must look into their structures, their views on power, and their roles in the political system. Based on the above, the following types of parties have been identified: 1. Democratic Parties:These are parties that compete with others, for public support and once in power, preserve this element of competition,…

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Organisation of Political Parties

The structure of each political party is derived from certain elements which gives it coherence. They are structured on bas c definite components as follows: (a) Caucus.(b) The Branch.(c) The Cell.(d) The Militia. (a) The CaucusThis is an informal group within the parties. The Caucus wield influence with which it manipulates what happens in the…

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Features of Political Parties

There are certain features common to all political parties irrespective of the political system they operate. 1. It is an organisation with a hierarchical structure and set of procedures. 2. Whatever the nature of the political system, parties generally seek to win, expand and consolidate their political support. 3. One of the most important characteristics…

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