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Charle’s Law

This law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature in Kelvin, provided that the pressure remains constant. Where k is the constant of proportionality, and V and T are the volume and temperature of the gas respectively. ExperimentalJ.A. Charles (1787) investigated the relationship between the volume…

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General Gas Equation

This general gas equation is obtained by a combination of Boyle’s law, Charles’ law and Avogadro’s law and can be expressed as Where                         PV   =     nRT                          P    =     Pressure                          V    =     Volume                          n    =     Number of moles                          R    =     Gas constant                          T    =     Temperature (Kelvin) NoteThe postulates discussed above apply to ideal gases. That is…

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Gay Lussac’s Law

Our modern day balanced gaseous equations have their origin from Gay Lussac’s experimental findings. Consider the illustrations below. 1. 2. By similar consideration, one can explain the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen gas to form water vapour following the same argument.       The ratio of the volumes of the reacting gases above is:    Ratio…

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Boyle’s Law

This law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure provided that temperature remains constant. where k is a constant, P and V being the pressure and volume of the gas respectively. This law was verified using the apparatus shown in the Figure below. ExperimentalRobert Boyle (1627…

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Graham’s Law

In 1833, Thomas Graham, an English chemist, in his experiments discovered that: 1. Gas molecules diffuse and fill up all available space mixing up with air molecules.Examples: i. Gradual spread of the smell of rotten eggs                      ii. Gradual spread of the smell of perfumes 2.  Different gases diffuse at different rates. Some gases are heavier…

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The Kinetic Theory

The kinetic theory predicts a relationship between pressure of a gas and its temperature. Consider an inexpensive container filled with a gas. If the container is heated, the gas molecules will speed up and strike the walls of the container more frequently and with more force. Such action will increase the pressure. This implies that…

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Avogadro’s Law

Avogadro hypothesis confirmed as Avogadro’s law states that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. 1 mole of any substance contains the Avogadro’s number of particles of that substance. particles (molecules, ions atoms, electrons) = Avogadro’s number. Example: In simple term, Avogadro’s law states that…

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Types of Chemical Bonds

It will be recalled that the maximum number of electrons that can be found in any shell is 2n2 where n is the quantum number. Any atom whose outermost shell contains these maximum number of electrons is usually very stable and highly unreactive. The inert gases in group VIII (helium, neon, argon and krypton) always…

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The Periodic Table

The periodic table is the arrangement of elements in a pattern that shows that elements with similar chemical properties appear at regular intervals or periods. As a result, elements in each vertical column have similar chemical properties and similar electronic configurations. Their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outermost shells. Elements arranged…

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Electronic Configuration of Atoms

The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons while the proton is positively charged with a unit mass, the neutron also has a unit mass but with no charge. This means that the nucleus has a net positive charge with a mass equal to the mass of both the protons and the neutrons. The third particle…

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Atomic Number, Mass Number, Isotopes, and Relative Atomic Masses of Atoms

Atomic numberThis is the number of protons (i e. number of positive charges) in the nucleus of any atom. Mass numberThis is the total number of protons and neutrons (collectively called nucleons) in the nucleus of the atom. IsotopesIsotopes are atoms of the same elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers. The…

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Laws of Conservation of Matter, Constant Proportion and Multiple Proportion

Early history of chemistry was marked by incorrect theories about what occurred during chemical reactions. It had long been observed, for instance, that when wood burnt, the resulting ash was very light and fluffy. These types of observations then led to the conclusion that ‘something’, which German chemists, Becher and Stahl called phlogiston, was lost…

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