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Christ seen in The Old Testament


1. Gen.3:15…..And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise your head and you shall bruise His heel. The “seed” noted in that statement is “Jesus” in reference.
2. Christ the High Priest “after the order of Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18-20). The words “after the order of Melchizedek” refer to the unending Priesthood of our saviour (psalm 110.4 & Hebrews 7).
3. Christ, typified by Joseph:-

a. Beloved of his father (Gen.37:3 & Matt.3; 17; 17:5).
b. Hated and rejected by his brethren (Gen.37; 4 & John 15; 25).
c. Brothers plot to slay him, and figuratively they do so (Gen.37:20-27 & Acts 2:23).
d. Lifted out of the pit (Gen.37:28 & Acts 2:24).
e. Went to the Gentile; received and favoured (Gen.39:1-6 & Acts 13:46-48).
f. Received a Gentile bride during his rejection (Gen.41:45 & Eph.5:23-32).
g. Reconciled to his brethren; and they were blessed through him (Gen.45:1-8 & Rom.11:25, 26).


1. In Exodus 33:17, He is the One greater than the deliverer; Moses-He is Christ type in ALL the scriptures.
2. The Voice in the burning bush [Exo.3:1-6].
3. The Passover Lamb of God (Exo.12:1-28).
4. The Unleavened Bread Exo.13:3-10).
5. The Rock/Pillar of Cloud and Fire leading them (Exo.13:21-22).
6. The Red Sea Crossing (Exo.14)
7. The Manna From Heaven (Exo.16)
8. The Source Of Living Water (Exo.17:1-7)


1. The Sacrificial System: – Here, every sacrifice anticipate the true and perfect sacrifice which Christ would offer at Calvary. The sacrifices testified that the worshiper lived only by virtue of the slain victim in his stead. The continual repetition of the sacrifices testified that blood of animals cannot take away sin permanently or forever.
2. OFFERINGS: The offerings are broken down into two groups:-

3. The Sweet Savour Offerings: This typifies Christ in His meritorious perfections. The first three in Leviticus are sweet savour offerings and are voluntary. They include:-

· Burnt offerings (Lev.1):- The burnt offerings were offered daily as an offering of dedication. It is the most common sacrifice in the Tabernacle and pictures the idea of consecration and self-surrenders of the whole man to the Lord. It typifies Christ offering Himself without spot to God in delight to do His Father’s will even in death. It is the “surrender” of Christ.
· Meal/Grain offerings (Lev.2):- The meal sacrifice is the sacrifice of daily devotion, and is called “meat” in the KJV. It typifies the perfect manhood of Christ. He is perfect in thought, in word and in action. Christ is the Grain of Wheat that falls into the ground and dies (John 12:24; 4:34; 6:37).
· Peace offering (Lev.3):– The peace offering represents fellowship and communion with God. It is an offering of thanksgiving. The sacrifice conveys the blessings and powers by which Salvation is established and secured. It typifies Christ, our peace (Eph.2:14; Col.1:20; Rom.5:1; 2nd Cor. 5:19; 1st John 1:3, 7) Christ is our mediator of peace.
· Non-Sweet Savour offerings: This consist of the last two offerings, and they are categorized under “non-sweet savour” offerings typify Christ bearing the whole penalty of the sinner. Leviticus shows the redeemed people of Israel that the way to God is by separation. They are:-
a. Sin offering (Lev.4):– The sin offering acknowledges sin (vs.2, 3). It is for expiation for sin. In this offering man is convicted sinner. It typifies Christ as sin bearer. Christ is “made sin for us”. He deals without particular sins. His death covers every sin.
b. Trespass offering (Lev.5):– The trespass offering cleanses the conscience and send the sinner back to make restitution (vs.5). It was for special sins by which a person had contracted guilt. It typifies Christ making restitution for the injury caused by our wrongdoing. We bring our sin; Christ brings the offering and the atonement for sin…


1. The bronze serpent (Num.21:4-9): God out of anger sent fiery serpent among the people the children of Israel because they murmur and spoke against Moses and God. But God ask Moses to make an image of a fiery serpent and set it on a pole; and it shall be that anyone who is bitten, when he looks at it shall live. Now, that serpent typifies Christ.

2. Moses been typified as Christ (Num.13): Moses is viewed as the leading type of Christ in this passage, for it is Moses who sends out the twelve to surrounding areas to spy it out and give a report on it, as Christ sent out the twelve to preach and heal, etc.


1. The Cities of Refuge (Deut. 4:41; 19:1-13), for example remind us of Christ Jesus our refuge and hiding place.

2. Moses typifies Christ as a Prophet (Deut. 18:15-18). Quoting from Deuteronomy 18 were God promises to send another Prophet like Moses (reference John 5:45-47). This is the most explicit reference to Christ Jesus in the book of Deuteronomy and the climax of the book.

IN JOSHUA: Joshua is a typical of Christ. Moses changed the name of Hoshea (May Jehovah save-in the Hebrew language) to Joshua (Jehovah is salvation-i.e. Jehovah has saved us). Moses was led by God inspirationally to strengthen Hoshea’s name to make it more solid, more durable, more certain, more dogmatic, as a personal name for the coming Messiah: Jehovah is salvation. Here is one who has come to save His people. And these two men (Christ & Joshua) not only share the same name, but a similar task. Joshua took over, after the messenger of the Giver of the law had died, and he led the people into the future that God had designed and planned for them. Typical to Christ who save us from the bondage of sin and led us to the father freely-insofar as we accept the task He gave us and believe in Him.

JUDGES: Othniel, a little Christ: – When Caleb called for someone to go and conquer the giant and take the mountain of Hebron and its territory promised him by Moses and Joshua, he offered his daughter’s hand in marriage as a reward. This insured him a valiant son-in-law, he wisely knew! It was Othniel who volunteered. With giant’s overthrow by Othniel, he was given Caleb’s daughter. Thus, he acted in faith and gained a position from which he would later be called to confront an even greater enemy of Israel. He typifies Christ a little. Also; the Judges who rose up in time of sorrows of the children of Israel, typifies Christ.

IN RUTH: Boaz typifies Christ in the sense that Boaz’s giving of bread and wine to Ruth (as Christ gave His Bread/Body and Wine/Blood to His bride) and of Ruth’s desire to be brought under the wings of Boaz (as the church is healed by the wings of the Sun of Righteousness). Boaz is a striking types of our Redeemer, Friend, Bridegroom and our Father the Lord Jesus Christ. And as Boaz showed grace upon grace to Ruth, inviting her to sup with him, so our Lord Jesus Christ has shown us grace upon grace, and invites us to taste and see that the Lord is good.

IN 1ST SAMUEL: The life of Samuel typifies Christ. His birth was by prophecy so also was the birth of Christ bearing some similarities.

IN 2ND SAMUEL: The Lord Jesus Christ is seen primarily in two parts of 2nd Samuel.

1. a.      The Davidic Covenant as outlined in 2nd Samuel 7:16-“…your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.” Luke 1:31-33 in the words of the angel who appeared to Virgin Mary to announce Jesus’ birth to her-“….He will be great and be called The Son of The Most High. The Lord God will give Him the throne of His Father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever; His kingdom will never end.” Christ is the fulfilment of the Davidic Covenant; He is the Son of God in the line of David who will reign forever.

2. b.      Jesus is seen in the songs at the end of His life {2nd Samuel 22:25). He sings of His Rock, fortune and deliverer, his refuge and savour.

1ST KINGS: Solomon is seen as Christ in the book of 2nd Kings. Solomon was the king of Israel. Then Solomon sat on the throne of his father David his father; and his kingdom was firmly established. During his era there was peace in the entire Israel and the Labouring towns, 1stKings 2:12.

IN 2ND KINGS: Elijah seen as Christ, ascended to heaven bodily, personally and visibly. Then like Christ’s disciples later centuries; Elisha watched his mentor being taken up from him into Heaven.

1ST CHRONICLES: Just as the Ark of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies was the dwelling place of God among Israel, so the church is the dwelling place of God with His people in this age. Typifies Christ not only being the Head of the Church but also the dwelling place of the believers.

2ND CHRONICLES: Herod’s Temple to which Christ prophecy typifying His Body. “Destroy this temple and in three days build it again.” This was the temple to which Christ came (Jn. 2:13-17).

EZRA: The keeping of the feast by the remnant that turned under the decree of Cyrus; speak typically of the future time when restored Israel will keep the feast of the tabernacle in the millennial age. Zachariah spoke of that time (Ezra 14:6). Seated upon that throne will be David’s greatest son, the Lord Jesus Christ.

NEHEMIAH: The name Ezra means ‘Help’ or ‘Serving Help’; Nehemiah means ‘Comfort’. Jesus Christ came to be the saving help of His people; the Holy Spirit came as the comforter to guide and strengthen His people.

ESTHER: Mordecai is a type of Christ in the book of Esther. He was kind, his faithfulness with respect to the king-never mind his immoral character; expose those who plan to kill the king. He wore torn clothes, sack-clothes and ashes, weeping bitterly, sharing their distress. Of Christ too, “in their entire affliction He was afflicted” (Isa. 63:9).

JOB: Job was seen as The Priest whose patient suffering was inflicted by Satan but was purposed by God; typifying Christ coming to die for us as His father’s will.

PSALMS: Christ seen as the beloved of God singing praise in the midst of the church. (Heb.2:12).

PROVERBS: Christ seen as the Wisdom of God “(1st Cor. 1:4) in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and Knowledge (Col. 2:3).

ECCLESIATICS: Christ seen as the Preacher, the son of David. The wisdom of God and the King of Jerusalem from above (Eccl. 1:1; 1stCor. 1:24; Gal. 4:26).

SONGS OF SOLOMON: Christ is seen as the King of peace (Solomon), Bridegroom the beloved, Lover of the church.

ISAIAH: Christ seen in His Messianic glory as the Holy-One of Israel, our Salvation, our Righteousness and Comfort. All judgment has been committed to Him.

JEREMIAH: Christ is seen as the Appointed Prophet to Jerusalem, suffering with, for, and at the hands of His Own nation.

LAMENTATIONS: Christ seen as the Interceding, Weeping Prophet, “The Man of sorrows.”

EZEKIEL: Christ seen as the Son of Man to the rebellious house of Judah.

DANIEL: Christ seen as the Stone cut out of the mountain without hands (Dan.2:34, 44, and 45).

HOSEA: Christ seen as the Prophet fulfilling law and redeeming in love.

JOEL: Christ is seen as our Jehovah-God, the Promisor of, the Receiver of, and the Baptizer in the out poured spirit.

AMOS: Christ seen as our Burden-Bearer.

OBADIAH: Christ seen as the Servant and Worshipper of Jehovah, and the Executor of Divine Retribution.

JONAH: Christ seen as the Greater than Jonah using Jonah’s experience as a sign of His Own Death, burial, and resurrection and of God’s mercy on the repenting Gentiles.

MICAH: Christ seen as the Heavenly Micah, who like God; born in Bethlehem, rejected as the King of the Jews, and the establisher of His house.

NAHUM: Christ seen as the Prophet of Comfort and Vengeance, comforting His own.

HABAKKUK: Christ seen as the Judger of Nations.

ZEPHANIAH: Christ seen as a Jealous God.

HAGGAI: Christ is seen as our Prophet, Priest and Prince.

ZECHARIAH: Christ seen as the Lamp-stand and Olive Trees.




· McCain, D. (1996); Notes on Old Testament Introduction; A RNI. Print Productions Nigeria
· Grudem, W. (1994); Systematic Theology, U.S.A, Intervarsity Press England
· James, K. (1969); The King James Version of THE HOLY BIBLE; USA, The National Publishing Company
· Marshall, I.H. (Edit) (1996); New Bible Dictionary; USA, Intervarsity Press Illinois