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Data Analysis, Results and Discussion of Findings – Job Design and Organizational Resilience of Pharmaceutical Firms; Using Port Harcourt as a Case Study

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Table 1: Questionnaire response rate

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Table 1 shows the number of research instrument returned based on their respective organization; this is represented in the bar chart below.

Table 2: Sex of Respondents

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Table 2 Shows that pharmaceutical firms are more populated with female employees which represents 76.1% and 23.9% male.imageFigure 1: Sex of Respondents

Table 3: Age of Respondents
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Table 3 shows a distribution of respondents age, it shows that those whose age fall from 30 years and below are 25 which is 28.4% of total respondents, those within the range of 31-35 years are 26 which is 29.5%, this who are between 36-40 years are 16 which is 18.2% while those from 41-45 years are 12 which is 13.6% of total respondents and those from 46 years and above are 9 which is 10.2% of total respondents. This is also represented in the bar chart below.

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Figure 2: Age of Respondents

Table 4 Marital Status of Respondents
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Table 4 shows that 36 of our respondents are single, which is 40.9% of total respondents, 38 respondents are married which is also 43.2% of total respondents, 8 respondents were divorced while 6 were widowed which represents 9.1% and 6.8% respectively. This is shown in the bar chart below:

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Figure 3: Respondents Marital Status

Table 5: Respondents Service Years
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Table 5 shows that 19 respondents have worked in their respective pharmaceutical firms for 3 years and below which is 21.6% of total respondents, 31 respondents have also worked within 4-6 years which is also 35.2% of total respondents, 24 respondents have worked for 7-9 years which is 27.3% while 14 respondents have worked for 10 years and above, representing 15.9% of total respondents. This is also represented in the bar chart below:

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Figure 4: Respondents Service Years

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

Devore (2004) enlisted two criteria for rejecting or accepting null hypotheses using SPSS as follows:

a. Reject null hypotheses if p-value (Sig. 2-tailed) is less that alpha (0.05).
b. Accept null hypotheses if p-value (Sig. 2-tailed) is greater that alpha (0.05).

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between skill variety and adaptability.
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Our first hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between skill variety and adaptability with a correlation coefficient of .951 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between skill variety and vulnerability.
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Our second hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between skill variety and vulnerability with a correlation coefficient of .975 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between task identity and adaptability.
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Our third hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between task identity and adaptability with a correlation coefficient of .446 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between in task identity and vulnerability.
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Our fourth hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between task identity and vulnerability with a correlation coefficient of .423 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Ho5: There is no significant relationship between task autonomy and adaptability.
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Our fifth hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between task autonomy and adaptability with a correlation coefficient of .913 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Ho6: There is no significant relationship between task identity and vulnerability.
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Our sixth hypothesis shows a significant relationship existing between task autonomy and vulnerability with a correlation coefficient of .882 and a p-value of 0.000 which is less than alpha (0.05). Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis.

Bivariate Correlations
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Our Bivariate correlation shows that the significant relationship existing between skill variety and vulnerability is the strongest with a correlation coefficient of .975, while the relationship between task identity and vulnerability is the lowest with a correlation coefficient of .423. Based on the decision rule, the null hypotheses will be rejected. The alternate hypotheses are therefore accepted. There is a significant relationship between the dimensions of job design (skill variety, task identity and task autonomy) and the measures of organizational resilience (adaptability and vulnerability).

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job design and organizational resilience of pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. In the course of conducting this investigation, research questions were postulated to address the intent of the study. Our findings show that the dimensions of our independent variable (job design) significantly correlates with the measures of our dependent variable (organizational resilience). The rho values which carry high coefficients indicate that job design is a significant antecedent of organizational resilience. Therefore, all previously stated null hypotheses are, based on our findings and analysis, rejected.

  1. SPSS output for hypothesis one indicates a positive association between skill variety and adaptability of pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. This is in line with Lazear (2005). Lazear (2005) found a positive relationship between this measure and the probability for self-employment, citing this as evidence for the ‘jack-of-all-trades’. Multi-skilled individuals are more productive and are useful to the organization. Their findings revealed that skill variety has a significant positive influence on overall recovery of organizations from the impact of natural disaster with higher levels of robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness and rapidity.

  2. SPSS output for hypothesis two indicate a positive relationship between skill variety and vulnerability of pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. This is in line with the findings of Brown and McIntosh (2003). They showed that skilled employees can qualitatively change conclusions about job-satisfaction. Skill variety can affect employee’s qualitative conclusions about job satisfaction thus enhancing employee performance and organizational resilience. Ayandele and Isichei (2013) investigated the impact of performance management system on employee’s commitment to the organization. The findings of their study revealed that performance management system impacts on employee’s commitment to the organizational set goals.

  1. SPSS output for hypothesis five indicate a positive relationship between task autonomy and adaptability of pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. This is in line with Claus and Neta (2004). They examined the effect of task autonomy on adaptability. Their study found that task autonomy is significant for the development and increases in organization productivity.

  2. SPSS output for hypothesis six indicate a positive relationship between task autonomy and vulnerability of pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. This is in line with Niessen, Volmer, Hollenbect and Tiegs (2010). Their study demonstrated that individuals who normally accomplished tasks with low autonomy were aware of the increase of autonomy but did not make full use of it. Their findings revealed that the increase of autonomy tends to increase employees’ capabilities and aids organizational resilience.

  3. SPSS output for hypothesis three indicate a positive relationship between task identity and adaptability of pharmaceutical firm in Port Harcourt. This is in line with Umoh, Amah and Wokocha (2014). They examined the relationship between management development and organizational resilience. The findings of their study revealed that management development is significantly related to organizational resilience.

  4. SPSS output for hypothesis four indicate a positive relationship between task identity and vulnerability of Pharmaceutical firms in Port Harcourt. This is in line with Morrison, et al, (2005). They identified that job designs that provide for high levels of employee control also provide increased opportunities for the development and exercise of skill. Secondly Garg and Rastogi, (2006) in their study posits that perceived work demands, job control and social support through job design leads to high productivity.

 

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