Factors causing problems to the environment include the following:
(i) Rural-urban migration – which leads to overcrowding in the urban areas, and excess demand for basic social and economic infrastructure and energy. The overcrowding brings about health problems such as tuberculosis, meningitis and influenza. It also leads to frequent accidents and increase in crime rates. This in turn, makes the urban areas to be troubled by such problems as poor housing conditions, limited coverage and unreliable service provision, general environmental deterioration, confused transport system and increased flood and fire disasters.
(ii) Water, air and noise pollution that may cause many waterborne and airborne diseases and eardrum impairment. These are common sources of health problems and they degrade the living environment.
(iii) General depletion of natural resources such as deforestation, overgrazing and excessive exploitation of mineral resources.
(iv) Harsh living conditions especially in rural areas which compel people to unduly exploit the environment.
(v) Urbanisation resulting from rapid expansion and decentralisation of government administrative machinery.