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THE CLEF AND LETTER NAMES FOR THE STAVE

Clefs define the pitch range, or tessitura {pitch range: the pitch range that predominates in a piece of music}, of the staff on which is placed. A clef is usually the leftmost symbol on a staff. Additional clefs may appear in the middle of a staff to indicate a change in register for instruments with a wide range. In early music, clefs could be placed on any of several lines on a staff. The stave is named THE CLEF and they are:

a. G clef (Treble clef)

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The Centre of the spiral defines the line or space upon which it rests as the pitch G above middle C, or approximately 392 Hz. As positioned in the above diagram, it assigns G above middle C to the second line from the bottom of the staff, and is referred to as the “treble clef.” This is the most commonly encountered clef in modern notation, and is used for most modern vocal music. Middle-C is the first ledger line below the stave here. The shape of the clef comes from a stylized uppercase-G.

Treble notes In spaces are: F A C E (Fight All Corrupt Emperor)
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Treble notes on lines are E G B D F (Elegant Girls Bid Daughters Freedom)
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b. F clef (Bass clef)

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The line or space between the dots in this clef denotes F below middle C, or approximately 175 Hz. As positioned in the above diagram, it makes the second line from the top of the staff F below middle C, and is called a “bass clef.” This clef appears nearly as often as the treble clef, especially in choral music, where it represents the bass and baritone voices and in closed scores tenor and bass. Middle C is the first ledger line above the stave here. In old music, particularly vocal scores, this clef is sometimes encountered or centred on the third staff line, in which position it is referred to as a baritone clef; this usage has essentially become obsolete. The shape of the clef comes from a stylized upper-case-F (which used to be written the reverse of the modern F).

Bass notes on lines are G B D F A (Great Boys Don’t Fall Apart)
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Bass notes in spaces are: A C E G (Amnesty Can Ease Government)
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– Treble and Bass clefs
The treble clef begins from second line called G-note on the stave While Bass clef begins from the fourth line called F-note on the stave.

Music written in this way is called Staff Notation. Read from down to up. To fully understand and memorize its letter names and notes.
Note: You must memorize the above words or letters for each space and line so that you can remember its keynote when you come across it during music reading. The lines and spaces are counted upwards from the lowest line to the highest. Notes are written on five lines and four spaces to show their pitch. 

c. C clef (Alto clef and Tenor clef)

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This clef points to the line (or space, rarely) representing middle C, or approximately 262 Hz. Positioned here, it makes the centre line on the staff middle C, and is referred to as the “alto clef.” This clef is used in modern notation for the viola. While all clefs can be placed anywhere on the staff to indicate various tessitura, the C clef is most often considered a “movable” clef””: it is frequently seen pointing instead to the fourth line and called a “tenor clef”.

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This clef is used very often in music written for bassoon, cello, trombone, and double bass; it replaces the bass clef when the number of ledger lines above the bass staff hinders easy reading. C-clefs were used in vocal music of the classical era and earlier; however, there usage in vocal music has been supplanted by the universal use of the treble and bass clefs. Modern editions of music from such periods generally transpose the original C-clef parts to treble (female voices), octave treble (tenors), or bass clef (tenors and basses).

The Alto and Tenor clefs are known as the C-clef because it places the C note on one of the lines of the staff. The Alto and tenor clefs have two curves that meet in the Centre. The note on the staff where these chords meet is the note C.

– The Alto clef is positioned on the middle line. This note becomes the note C or C-note. This note is also middle C. E.g.
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– The Tenor clef is very similar to Alto clef but the main difference is that the tenor clef is positioned on the second line from the top whereas Alto clef is positioned on the middle line. In Tenor clef, the second line from the top becomes the note C. This is also middle C as in Alto clef. See diagram below:
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d. Neutral clef

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Used for pitch-less instruments, such as some of those used for percussion. Each line can represent a specific percussion instrument within a set, such as in a drum set. Two different styles of neutral clefs are pictured here. It may also be drawn with a separate single-line staff for each un-tuned percussion instrument.

e. Octave clef

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Octave numbers can also modify treble and bass clefs. An eight or fifteen above a clef raises the intended pitch range by one or two octaves respectively. Similarly, an eight or fifteen below a clef lowers the pitch range by one or two octaves respectively. A treble clef with an eight below is the most commonly used, typically used for tenor, baritone or guitar and similar instruments.

d. Tablature

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For stringed instruments, it is possible to notate tablature in place of ordinary notes. In this case, a TAB sign is often written instead of a clef. The number of lines of the staff is not necessarily five: one line is used for each string of the instrument (so, for standard 6-stringed guitars, six lines would be used). Numbers on the lines show on which fret the string should be played. This TAB sign, like the percussion clef, is not a clef in the true sense, but rather a symbol employed instead of a clef. The interstitial spaces on a tablature are never used.

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